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On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978



Appendix F [pp470-472]
Major Viking Contractors and Subcontractors




Bendix Aerospace Systems Div.
Ann Arbor, Mich.


Bendix was responsible to Martin Marietta for two of the entry science instruments-the upper atmospheric mass spectrometer and the retarding potential analyzer-and one Martian surface instrument-the seismometer. Design, fabrication, assembly, and testing were conducted at the Ann Arbor facilities.

Celesco Industries


Costa Mesa, Calif.

Celesco Industries built the surface-sampler arm, housing, and drive mechanism that picked up the surface samples and delivered them to the lander instruments. Celesco acted as a subcontractor to Martin Marietta.
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation
Akron, Ohio
Goodyear was responsible to Martin Marietta for the decelerator system used on the lander. Goodyear personnel designed, built, and tested the decelerator system and managed subtler. suppliers and subcontractors
Honeywell Aerospace Division


St. Petersburg, Fla.


Under contract to Martin Marietta Honeywell designed, manufactured, and tested the lander guidance, control, and sequencing computer and data storage memory.
Itek Corporation,
Optical Systems Division
Lexington, Mass.
Itek was responsible to Martin Marietta for all aspects of the lander camera system. Itek produced and tested the cameras and their supporting Earth-based ground reconstruction sets. Itek also provided the computer software necessary to operate and control the cameras and to drive the ground reconstruction equipment in reconstructing the photographs.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Pasadena, Calif.


JPL was responsible to NASA for the orbiter and the mission control center (Space Flight operations Facility). JPL also operated the Deep Space Network.
Litton Industries,
Guidance and Control
Systems Division

Woodland Hills. Calif.


Litton contracted with NASA for the production and integration of the design technology used in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.

Martin Marietta Aerospace






Denver, Colo.






Martin Marietta was responsible to NASA's Langley Research Center for the overall integration of the Viking project and was prime contractor for the lander and its subsystems (designing, testing, and building the lander and managing all lander Subcontractors). Martin Marietta also designed and built the photo sensor array for the Viking cameras, the temperature transducers, and the x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. In addition, Martin Marietta built the Titan IIIE launch vehicles used in the project.
RCA Astro-Electronics Division

Princeton, N.J.



As a subcontractor to Martin Marietta, RCA designed, built, and tested the lander communications subsystem, including an ultrahigh-frequency radio transmitter, an antenna for beaming signals to the orbiter, an S-band antenna for broadcasting directly to Earth; and an S-band low-gain unit to receive direct commands from Earth.

Rocket Research Corporation


Redmond, Wash.


Rocket Research, under contract to Martin Marietta, was responsible for developing and manufacturing the throttleable, monopropellant -hydrazine, landing engines and the control and deorbit engines.

Sheldahl, Inc.



Northfield, Minn.



For Martin Marietta, Sheldahl designed and built four load-carrying high-altitude balloons, which were used for the balloon launch-decelerator test program for the lander, and the disk-gap-band parachute used as part of the decelerator system. Sheldahl also fabricated the bioshields used to encapsulate the lander and the lander leg covers.
Space and Missile
Systems Organization

Los Angeles, Calif.



SAMSO was the U.S. government agency responsible for developing the Titan III launch vehicle. The SAMSO 65S5 Aerospace Test Wing at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station managed the Titan launch facility and supported NASA in launching the Titan III Centaur

Teledyne Ryan


San Diego, Calif.


Teledyne Ryan subcontracted with Martin Marietta as designer, tester, and builder of the radar altimeter and the terminal-descent and landing radar used on the lander.

TRW Inc.

Redondo Beach, Calif.

As a subcontractor to Martin Marietta, TRW built the biology and meteorology instruments carried on the lander.